You can rest assured, including – and particularly – among gurus, our rational vocabulary is extremely organized. There is a large number of relationships between the solitary terminology away from a language together with significance ones conditions, respectively. Certainly linguists, these types of relationships have been called “semantic relations”, “experience relationships” otherwise “lexical relations”. These semantic relationships is analysed and you will demonstrated for area, plus in the next, the initial of those of them relations are to be exhibited.
In order to promote an initial, crucial breakdown of the advanced, it needs to be mentioned that you will find some studies on this material. not, that it papers are only able to are a few of them. Books which was utilized can be obtained around part half a dozen, “List of Functions Quoted”. Enterprise delimitations only have become produced in terms of detail try worried. Because this report is just a highly short little bit of look, the new experts features restricted themselves not to ever enter into too much outline, but alternatively attempt to offer a questionnaire of one’s procedure.
dos.1 Polysemy And you may Homonymy
Polysemy can be described as “a phrase utilized in semantic analysis to refer so you’re able to good lexical item which includes various different significance” (Crystal 1997, 297). Crystal gets given that analogy having polysemy the brand new lexical item “plain”, that has the different meanings “clear”, “unadorned”, “obvious”, an such like.(ibid. Crystal).
Today, the issue one appears to have linguists is how to separate polysemy of another type of ambiguity, away from homonymy. Amazingly represent homonymy given that “an expression used in semantic data to refer to help you [a couple of] lexical things that [accidentally] have the same function, but differ for the meaning” (Crystal 1997, 185). Crystal’s examples here are “bear” and you can “ear”. “Bear” is also establish a pet or have the definition off “to bring”, “ear” normally relate to your body or to corn (ibid. Crystal).
Throughout these instances, homonymy covers each other verbal and you may written versions, but it is together with likely that the new term out-of one or two lexemes is in an individual medium, whereby linguists perform speak of partial homonymy otherwise heteronymy (ibid. Crystal). It’s possible to distinguish 2 kinds of partial homonymy:
– Homography: one or two lexical circumstances have the same composed setting, however, disagree in pronunciation (an illustration could be the several lexical bits of “lead”, you to pronounced [li:d] and you can meaning “to be in side”, additional noticable [led] and you will determining a unique brand of steel). – Homophony: two lexical affairs have a similar enunciation, however, differ inside the spelling
(e.g. mingle2 zaregistrovat the two lexical circumstances “led” and “lead”, both of which happen to be noticable [led], the initial as the prior stressful out-of “to guide”, the latter again identifying an alternative types of metal).
two types Of Ambiguity
Thus, polysemy and you will homonymy can be prominent out of each other from the existing or missing relatedness within definitions which can be allocated to one phonological function. What’s the key of your own matter, is the matter to what the total amount this notion off “relatedness” will likely be given. Quite simply: just how do “relatedness” getting discussed? If the a very clear and real meaning will be considering, the entire situation might possibly be fixed, having then the trend of phonological versions whose relatedness are proved could well be called “homonymy”, whose relatedness cannot be proved was named “polysemy”. not, since goes many times in neuro-scientific semantics, one cannot simply bring a clear and you may indisputable concept of the expression “relatedness”. There are 2 first ways to this dilemma, you to definitely supplied by historical semantics, others because of the synchronic semantics.
Historical semantics interprets the idea “relatedness” mainly naturally and therefore talks regarding polysemy if the a great lexeme with different significance contains an identical etymological root (Kastovsky 1982, 121). Instances is “game” toward one or two meanings “wild animals” and “playful hobby” or “funny” definition sometimes “strange” or “amusing”. Both advice let you know lexemes whoever various other meanings have a similar etymological roots and are also therefore translated as polysemy by the historic semantics.