sixteen tu This new REFLEXIVE PREFIX Into the ZULU – Good TYPOLOGICAL Perspective Sonja Elizabeth. Bosch In this post I am going to take a look at the the fresh sources of the reflexive prefix within the Zulu, spending attention for the procedure of grammaticalization by which lexemes turn into grammatical formatives. While the reflexivization in a number of Bantu languages was opposed, this article have been around in the form of a good typological study. Inside Lehmann s () dialogue of your phenomena which are known as reflexive, it’s fascinating to see which he assumes five types of reflexives, specifically 0) autophoric nouns that are normal kupon farmers dating site nouns such as looks, breath, spirit, direct you to definitely ple, into the Sanscrit brand new noun dtman definition air, soul, as well as in Basque, the fresh noun burua meaning direct, are used to share the equivalent of English mind. Autophoric nouns made use of given that reflexives usually are followed by an excellent possessive pronoun, such as next analogy out of Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani fuel:acc lay:area putting energy during the himself (ii) reflexive nouns which are nouns declaring the meaning mind and nothing more, including the German selbst myself and Finnish itse as the represented regarding the following the examples: 344
17 German (2) Ich komme selbst I’m future me personally Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-lorsque? want-dos.sg-int admission-acc.pl self-all-poss.2.sg Do you want brand new passes for yourself? During the dialects such as for instance Finnish, Hungarian and you can Turkish reflexive nouns simply take possessive affixes, while in other dialects such as for instance German or the Romance languages, such nouns are not normally in conjunction with possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns having an important purpose of it comes down back into the topic, for instance the German sich inside the: Italian language (4) Sie waschen sich He or she is washing by themselves (iv) spoken reflexives that are verb affixes exhibiting that step somehow influences the niche, such as the following instances: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-look for he noticed himself Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di son clean-refl-past the man washed himself Lehmann () emphasizes that the limitations involving the categories is water and you may claims that these four types of reflexive aspects are actually on a scale off expanding grammaticalization.
This basically means, one can possibly look for it since a continuum regarding change that may become depicted as follows: 345
18 Lexical product Grammatical * morpheme Lehmann (ff) brings advice in different dialects so you can show the alterations that have occurred or remain going on in one group so you can next. The process of transform is actually verified of the Faltz () whom, for their morphological distinction between one or two chief version of reflexives, particularly NP-reflexives that may consist of a nominal morpheme acting as direct of your reflexive noun phrase, and you can spoken reflexives, including reflexive pronouns being cliticized on the verb, remarks: Languages get change from you to definitely rod for the almost every other, indeed, like direction was fundamentally throughout the NP-reflexive rod on the spoken reflexive pole. For the Zulu reflexiveness is actually realized as a good prefix and this directly precedes the new verb stalk. The fresh reflexive prefix try invariable fit, and therefore it’s good morphological figure hence remains constant irrespective of the class that their antecedent belongs. This really is obviously portrayed throughout the after the instances in Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya the-child he-themselves hit the kid strike himself (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini brand new-woman she-herself-see in-reflect This lady notices herself in the mirror Within these examples -zi- ‘s the reflexive morpheme together with actions of struck and discover was directed straight back up on the latest particular grammatical victims, that is, child and you may lady. It’s interesting you to definitely within the generative studies, a significant insight is done toward hidden build regarding phrases that has had reflexives, particularly NP1 – V – NP1. On the surface, such as a housing are ungrammatical regarding Bantu languages if the a couple NPs is actually co-referential and you may the same in shape, elizabeth.grams. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho duped Sipho Into the Zulu such as for example a sentence is established grammatical by installation from a good reflexive prefix regarding the verb and you will the fresh deletion of your co-referential noun. elizabeth.grams. 346